Agriculture is the science that is developed to enhance the production of plants and crops and is a technique to rear the animals and their food. These ecosystems are modified by a man specifically to grow biological products for human consumption. Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of Pakistan and its development. About 48% of the labor force is engaged directly with agriculture. So, it is the primary source of living of a significant part of the population. Pakistan is able to transport consistently one of the finest agricultural products ranging from rice, wheat and sugarcane to livestock animals. That is why Pakistan is considered to be God gifted land with respect to agriculture.
Statistics of Agriculture Land:
Agriculture land occupies almost half of the total land in Pakistan. Most accurately, Pakistan consists of an area of 881,913 km sq. (340,509 square miles).And agriculture land in Pakistan is 48% of the total area of it. Its highest value was 49 % in 1982, while its lowest cost was 45 % in 1990. But most of the agriculture land is arable land, the land which is capable of being ploughed and is used to grow crops. As time is passing by, environmental conditions are influencing agriculture land in Pakistan. That’s why agriculture land is now limited to cultivation. As a result, about 8 million acres area is barren and non-cultivable. There is also a vast sub-division and fragmentation of landholdings due to which use of modern technology cannot be applied on agriculture lands. Pakistan has two crop seasons, Kharif and Rabi. Kharif starts from April and remains till June.During October-December. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, maize, mash, Bajra and Jowar are harvested. Rabi, the second sowing season, sets up in October-December and wheat, gram, lentil, tobacco are harvested during April-May.
Importance of Agriculture in Pakistan:
Agriculture is a very important factor which ensures the sustainability of the development of Pakistan. It provides employment directly or indirectly to the public and resultantly employment directly affects the GDP of the economy as well as the per capita income.
The population growth rate in Pakistan is increasing exponentially. According to the UNDP human development report, the population of Pakistan is growing 2% every year. In this regard, agriculture is the only major sector which is helping to cope with the increasing requirement of food. The major influence which drives the country’s economy forwards is the reduction of imports of food from foreign countries.
Pakistan exports mainly wheat, rice and cotton. Cotton bales are produced about 9.5 billion per year. Rice crop is produced 4.3 million ton per year. These agricultural products are exported to foreign countries against foreign exchange. In Pakistan, agriculture provides raw material to industries. Livestock also contributes to an important role in the economy. Livestock exports goods by providing the raw material to various industries like sports manufacturer industries and leather industries.
The production in agriculture land has played a very important role in order to reduce rural poverty. Since 1975 the GDP of agriculture is about at least 4% per year. Modern technology in irrigation, seeds and fertilizers played a very important role to increase agricultural production and eventually it resulted in an increase in GDP.
Scope of Technology in Agriculture land:
Pakistan being the developing country, has been trying to raise its status in technology and Science. Pakistani social sectors are not fully digitalized due to which it seems to be lagging behind in the international market of the agricultural sector. Despite this fact, some of its products are widely exported, and there is a lot of demand for certain products. Currently, there is a lot of space in the development and implementation of agricultural technology which will ensure Pakistani agricultural sector rich advantages. If we compare the agricultural conditions of various countries, we found different variations in features. Developed countries have studied their agriculture land and have devised the policies to enhance the efficient methods being practised in agriculture land. On the other side, Pakistani agriculture land is still under the application of manual methods to produce crops. The world demands fast delivery of products, and it is only possible when Pakistan will implement fully digitalized systems on agriculture land as other countries have managed to do so. We will discuss different methods which are used in Pakistani agriculture land in detail as we proceed further.
Defects in Agriculture Land:
Agricultural developments are only secure as long as nature advancements are not affecting the agriculture land. One of the most important things in the agriculture sector is the land on which you are sowing the future of the nation and world. We will discuss some natural as well as non-conventional factors that are responsible for causing harm to agriculture land of Pakistan.
Waterlogging and salinity are the problems that destruct the fertility of agriculture land. Waterlogging is the absorption of water in the soil. Soil is considered to be waterlogged when it is almost saturated with water for so long that its air phase is restricted and removal of oxygen occurred. And salinity is the process of an accumulation of salts on the surface of land which badly affects the performance and quality of agriculture land. These two factors affect about 100,000 acres of land per year. In the result, not only land is wasted, but the production of agriculture land is reduced effectively.
Only 23.7 million hectares (28%) area of Pakistani agriculture land is used for agricultural purposes. About 8 million hectares area is free and unutilized, this problem is one of the underrated issues, and it is causing so much effect on productivity. If this issue is discussed properly, Pakistan can close the gap between her and developed countries in exports.
The most important issue of agriculture is its low yield per acre for every major crop. Half of the labors are working in this sector in Pakistan while it is less than 5% in other countries. Despite this fact, developed countries of the world are still producing higher yield per acre due to the use of modern technology and educated labor. The number of crops produced on a piece of land per year is very low in Pakistan. According to our research, there is a low level of cropping intensity when we compare to developed countries. The cultivable area under multiple cropping is less. In order to meet the potential of agricultural production, some steps must be taken in the department of research for agricultural growth. There are only 18 agricultural universities and colleges
A large part of arable land is disgusted due to various plants diseases. Agricultural crops like cotton, sugarcane, wheat and rice often are attacked by pesticides and insects. Pests and plant diseases have seriously reduced the productivity and quality of agriculture land.
A human can work out methods to increase the efficiency of its products, but when nature is intervening, and then a human is unable to produce the same results in spite of their efforts. This effect can be seen clearly in the agriculture sector. Labor work for the whole year and sometimes it just takes only a month of rain and all their hard work is gone. So, the growth of agriculture is dominated by nature. There is a 20% reduction in productivity due to unnecessary rain and sudden change in climatic conditions in Pakistan.
How Can Pakistan Improve Agriculture Land?
We must develop techniques in order to prevent the loss of agriculture land. Salinity and waterlogging can be prevented by installing tube wells, repairing of canal banks and drainage systems. In 2019, the ministry of agriculture proposed to invest Rs. 18.5 billion with the foremost objective of converting 0.2 million acres of irrigated agriculture land to drip and shower irrigation system. In order to overcome the loss caused by sudden rains and floods, we need to devise construction systems for dams as soon as possible. HYS seeds, wide yielding variety, cost much higher due to which farmers use low-quality seed which eventually affects the production and rate of exports of crops.so, these seeds along all the apparatus must be provided easily at low costs for the betterment of agriculture land. Sowing, cultivation and harvesting of crops through agricultural machines increases the product quality and quantity.as we discussed earlier that the use of technology in the agriculture sector is the need of the hour. Sowing, cultivation and harvesting of crops through agricultural machines increase the product quality and quantity.
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